• Ultrasonic graphene exfoliation
  • DH99-IIDN
  • Power 1800W, crushing capacity 0.5-2000ml
  • DH99-IIDN
  • Ultrasonic graphene exfoliation
  • Power 1800W, crushing capacity 0.5-2000ml
Ultrasonic graphene exfoliation instrument, DH99-IIDN, is specifically designed for the process of graphene preparation. By applying ultrasonic waves to the liquid medium, the unique cavitation and mechanical effects of ultrasonic waves are utilized to achieve processing objectives. It is an important part of the current graphene preparation and application process.
Product Introduction
DH99-IIDN ultrasonic graphene peeler is specifically designed for the graphene preparation process. By applying ultrasonic waves to the liquid medium, the cavitation effect and mechanical effect unique to ultrasonic waves are utilized to achieve processing purposes. It is an important link in the current graphene preparation and application.
DH99 series of ultrasonic products disperse aggregated particles using the cavitation effect of ultrasonic waves. The required processed particle suspension (liquid) is placed in a strong ultrasonic field and processed with an appropriate ultrasonic amplitude. Due to the inherent characteristics of powder particle aggregation, for some powders that are not well dispersed in the medium, an appropriate amount of dispersant can be added to maintain a stable dispersed state, which can generally reach several tens of nanometers or even smaller. This product is particularly effective for dispersing nano-materials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, silica dioxide, etc.).

Product Features
1. Energy-gathering high-power circulating ultrasound for higher and stronger ultrasound efficiency.
2. Strong scalability, with options ranging from 10L pilot scale to 250L production scale.
3. Customized high-amplitude probe of 30mm or more provides strong energy efficiency.
4. Optional processing chamber with cooling jacket to prevent sample overheating.
5. High-quality SUS304 stainless steel material has the advantages of corrosion resistance, heat resistance, low-temperature strength, mechanical performance, and non-magnetism.
6. Mechanical stirring function ensures uniform dispersion without dead zones during the dispersion process.

Introduction to Graphene
Graphene is the thinnest and hardest two-dimensional material in the world, composed of a single layer of carbon atoms. Its excellent strength, flexibility, conductivity, thermal conductivity, and optical properties have important applications in various fields. Graphene does not exist in its natural state as a single-layer material and is generally present as three-dimensional graphite. Therefore, extracting single-layer graphene from graphite has become crucial.

Ultrasonic Graphene Dispersion Principle
Ultrasonic graphene dispersion equipment uses the cavitation effect of ultrasound to disperse aggregated particles. The required particles to be processed are suspended in a liquid and placed into an ultra-strong sound field, which is then processed with appropriate ultrasound amplitude. Under additional effects such as cavitation, high temperature, high pressure, microjets, and strong vibration, the distance between molecules will continue to increase, eventually leading to molecular fragmentation and formation of single-molecule structures. This product is especially effective for dispersing nano-materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, and silica.
There are a large number of graphite materials in nature, with a thickness of 1 millimeter containing approximately 3 million layers of graphene. Single-layer graphene is called graphene, and this substance does not exist in a free state, but rather in the form of layered graphene sheets consisting of multiple layers of graphene. Due to the weak interlayer interaction of graphene sheets, they can be peeled layer by layer by external force, resulting in obtaining single-layer graphene, which is only one carbon atom thick.
Ultrasonic graphene dispersion, also known as ultrasonic graphene peeling, uses the oxidation-reduction method of graphite oxide and effective ultrasound vibration to increase the interlayer distance of graphite oxide. Graphite oxide with large interlayer distance is not only conducive to the insertion of other molecules, atoms, and so on to form graphite oxide intercalated composite materials, but also easy to be peeled into single-layer graphite oxide, laying the foundation for further preparation of single-layer graphene.

Technical Parameters  
Model: DH99-IIDN
Frequency: 19.5-20.5KHz
Power: 1800W
Random Amplitude Bar: Φ25
Optional Amplitude Bars: Φ15, Φ20
Crushing Capacity: 10-2000ml
Duty Cycle: 1-99%
Power Supply: 220/110V 50Hz/60Hz
Power Supply Case Size: 400×280×220mm
Net Weight: 13.1kg
Main Unit + Transducer Weight: 15.0kg
Packaging Dimensions: 534×295×435mm

Probe Model Selection  
Model Crushing Cell Capacity
Φ10mm 10ml-500ml
Φ15mm 50ml-1000ml
Φ20mm 100ml-2000ml

Common methods for dispersing graphene
1. Mechanical exfoliation
Graphene sheets are directly peeled off from larger crystals using adhesive tape, and this process is repeated.
Friction with a material is used to exfoliate bulk graphite, resulting in flake-like crystals that contain single-layer graphene.
Disadvantages: Low production yield, small area, difficult to control size precisely, low efficiency, and not suitable for large-scale preparation.
2. Chemical vapor deposition
A gas or gases containing carbon, usually a low-carbon organic gas, is introduced into a vacuum reactor. The gas is then decomposed and carbonized at high temperatures, resulting in the growth of a carbon monolayer on the surface of a substrate.
Disadvantages: The six-membered honeycomb crystal structure of graphene cannot be completely graphitized, and its quality is not as good as that of mechanical exfoliation. The high cost and stringent equipment requirements limit its large-scale production, and a catalyst needs to be added to reduce the purity of graphene.
3. Epitaxial growth method
One method is to heat single crystal 6H-SiC to remove Si, and then grow graphene epitaxially on the surface of SiC crystal. Graphene is in contact with the Si layer, and its conductivity is affected by the substrate. Another method is to use the trace carbon content in a metal single crystal. By high-temperature annealing under ultra-high vacuum conditions, carbon elements in the metal single crystal precipitate graphene on the surface of the metal single crystal.
Drawbacks: The thickness of the graphene film is uneven and difficult to control. The generated graphene is tightly attached to the substrate, which affects the characteristics of graphene. At the same time, it needs to be grown under ultra-high vacuum and high-temperature conditions, which are extremely harsh conditions. The equipment requirements are high, making it impossible to achieve large-scale, controllable preparation of graphene.
4. Graphene oxide reduction method
Graphene oxide is generally obtained by strong acid oxidation of graphite. There are three main methods for preparing graphene oxide: Brodie method, Staudenmaier method, and Hummers method, in which ultrasound assistance is required for graphene dispersion in the Hummers method.
Features: Hummers method graphene dispersion: simple method, short processing time, large processing capacity, safe and pollution-free, is currently the most commonly used method.
5. Ultrasound-assisted method
Ultrasonic graphene dispersion system uses ultrasound-assisted Hummers method to prepare graphene oxide, which is a high-frequency ultrasound vibration added to the liquid medium. Since ultrasound is a mechanical wave that is not absorbed by molecules, it causes molecular vibrational motion during propagation. Under cavitation effects, such as high temperature, high pressure, microjet, and strong vibration, the average distance between molecules increases due to vibration, which ultimately leads to molecular fragmentation. It can more effectively increase the interlayer spacing of graphene oxide. With the increase of ultrasound power, the interlayer spacing of the obtained graphene oxide tends to expand.
The pressure released by ultrasound instantaneously destroys the van der Waals force between graphene layers, making graphene less likely to aggregate together. Graphene oxide with larger interlayer spacing is not only conducive to the insertion of other molecules, atoms, etc. to form graphene oxide intercalated composite materials, but also easy to be peeled off into single-layer graphene oxide, laying a foundation for further preparation of single-layer graphene.

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Product List
DH99-IIDN Unit
Host Machine Unit
Vibration System (Transducer Assembly) Set
Soundproof box set
Cross clamp (inside the soundproof box) piece
Test tube clamp (inside the soundproof box) piece
Special Wrench (used for disassembling the amplitu Set
Fuses piece
Power cord piece
User manual copy
Warranty card copy
Certificate of qualification copy
8A, 5A each 2